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Gufeld and Kalinichenko Russian Handbook Of Chess Openings Russian Handbookof Chess OpeningsE. Gufeld N. Kalinichenko" A Concise Encyclopaediafor the Tournament Player"The Alternative Press4/Floor, 169 Wong Nai Chung RoadHappy Valley, Hong KongFax: (852) 881 1853 Tel: 577 6319First printing, October 1993Published by The Alternative Press Phileon Enterprises Limited 1991and the two authorsP.O. Box 47141, Morrison Hill, Hong KongThis book is sold subject to the condition that itshall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent,re-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated.Since it contains original (privileged) material andedited material from many other sources, use ofexcerpts in chess columns or short reviews ispermitted without the publisher's prior consent,provided due recognition is given to this book andthe chess players whose analysis/games are quoted.Please send us a opy of your article as a reference.Kaarlo Schepel-PublisherThe cover design is an original drawing made by JojoDesign StudioPrinted and bound in Hong KongPREFACEChess is nowadays going through the so-called "informationexplosion" which has stimulated a tremendous interest in thedevelopment of opening theory; this has now e a vast oceanof opening systems and variations.How should the contemporary chess player find his way in thislabyrinth of variations? What beacons should he use? Today thereare many books and monographs on opening theory. They containup-to-date systems and variations, although many of these areprimarily of historic interest.However, every sailor before embarking on a voyage needs hisown chart that is always near at hand. It should give both thedistant routes and the shallow waters awaiting the ship soon afterleaving the port. This is precisely the kind of chart that we offer toour readers.For an experienced sailor, in casu a skilled chess player, this isa sort of reference book; for the less sophisticated seaman/playerthis book is a permanent guide for steering his vessel; for a beginnerthis is a most convenient beacon in an ocean of chess variations.So everyone will find what he really needs for a safe voyage on boardthe chess steamer.Chess originated as a military game. Old Indian chess - chaturanga- imitated bat of the four fighting arms: "chatur = four,"anga" = military unit. So let us see how the basic military laws areapplied on the chess battlefield. They are, of course, more conspicuousthan the other laws of chess. For the sake of systematic presentationof the material, however, the authors have placed the openings andopening systems in the traditional order.Opening strategy is the most difficult part of the art of chess. Inthe opening, you must solve on the one hand the problems of speedymobilization of your forces by which you are trying to leave theopponent behind in development; on the other hand, the "endgame"(that eventually results from your opening) forces you to keep aclose look at how you place your pawns and your pawn formation.Gaining space is an important object in the opening; to do so,however, you must advance the pawns which in turn may lead tosome delay in the development of your pieces.In other words, there are certain contradictions between the ponents of opening strategy: 1) the struggle for time(development), 2) the struggle for space and 3) the struggle for theposition. The truth is normally found in the co-ordination of thepieces, in the interaction of all these three elements of the chessgame, and in the careful analysis of the position.What openings should be mended for those who beginstudying chess theory. There is no uniform theory on this. Priorityshould be given to open-game systems with a gambit element. Thereason for this is that the principles of the struggle for space e out in its most dramatic form and one tempo may decidethe whole game.At the initial stages of development, such openings suit the chessplayer best as a rule. At this period in his development he usuallyplays less without looking for the Absolute Truth. He strives todisplay his abilities in the game and does not want to adjust himselfto the requirements of the position. He is carried away by thestruggle. The four openings we are going to consider give us a scopefor this kind of play.The kind of games these systems produce tend to be quitespectacular. When playing these openings, chess players are abledisplay the resourcefulness of their attacking and counter-attackingtalent. Only these openings can contribute a lot to the chess player'screative development. Later we will understand plicatedopenings as the Ruy Lopez (the Spanish Opening), closed openingsetc., in which the principles of development and struggle for thecentre are not manifest in such a spectacular form.Let us consider, for example, the Two Knights' Defence. Thisdefence is one of the most thrilling openings which has preservedits ism since the 16th century, having been enriched withnew ideas. Four centuries ago the Nf7 sacrifice was most popular.The famous Polerio-Domenico game is the classical illustration ofthe possibilities that both sides can explore in this variation. Thelatest analysis of this game shows that the masters of binational Italian school were technically strong too.In the 19th century, Black started to prevent the Nf7 sacrifice byresorting to plans for counter-attack. The most popular line involvesa pawn sacrifice. pensation, Black gets free play, gooddevelopment and chances for initiative. The Russian master Chigorinwas the greatest expert of this variation. Paul Keres worked outiianother counter-attacking plan: 4.Ng5,Bc5 (the so-called Traxler'sCounter-attack). Contemporary theory presumes that the secondKnight move is a violation of opening principles which gives Blackcertain counter-chances.The move 4.d4 is more solid positionally. The central files arequickly opened up, and White hopes to capitalise on his first movein active piece play. Black in turn is ready to sacrifice a pawn orsome other material for getting counter-play. Sooner or later he willcarry out the thematic advance d7-d5!To hinder this pawn advance, White sticks to a restraining strategyby playing 4.d3. Premature is now 4...,d5 because of 5.exd5,Nxd56.0-0! and 7.Rel. White intends to play d3-d4, preventing at thesame time ...d7-d6 or ...d7-d5. Sometimes Bc4 moves to c2 via b3(after c2-c3), which resembles Ruy Lopez patterns.The King's Gambit is as old (and probably even older) as the TwoKnights' Defence. On his second move White begins to fight for thecentre in the sharpest possible way. He wants to get rid of pawn e5and to build up the formidable tandem in the centre: biningpawns e4 and d4! What about the White King? Well, the centre ismore important!When Black rejects the Gambit, he normally chooses the cautious2...,Bc5 or the Falkbeer's Counter-Gambit 2...,d5. The first line leadsto positional confrontations, resulting in a struggle for the superiorityin development. The counter-gambit is somewhat analogous to theTwo Knights' Defence in which Black sacrifices a pawn for the sakeof free play and initiative. Mter 3.exd5 Black plays 3...,e4! andWhite has difficulties in development.The King's Gambit Accepted leads to razor-plications.To seize the centre and secure superior development, White shouldbe ready to make any kind of sacrifice (like the Mucio or Algayer'sGambits). Black does not give in and prepares a counter-blow in thecentre by playing d6-d5!Morra's Gambit (named after an unknown French chess playerwho proposed l.e4,c5 2.d4,cxd4 3.c3) gives White a chance to playaggressively, when Black tries to avoid an open game by choosingthe Sicilian Defence. The gambit's idea is the same. If Black acceptsthe sacrifice, White will concentrate his forces in the centre andgains that way a superior development.iiiWhat is Black's strategy? As practice shows, he gets his bestchances when he does not hold onto the extra material and gives upthe extra pawn, or hinders White's aggressive intentions by theresolute advance ...e7-e5! in the early stage of the game. Althoughhis d5-square gets weakened, the pawn in the centre esinstrumental anising a solid defence: what is more, Black canreturn this pawn later at a convenient moment.Black can reject the gambit only by active counter-play in thecentre: ...d7-d5 or ...Ng8-f6. The struggle for superior developmentassumes an extremely sharp character.For those who prefer to play the Sicilian Defence with Black, mend that they play the Dragon Variation with Black's Bishopon g7. This opening is not 100% safe, but it gives Black manypossibilities for active counter-strikes, especially in the centre.The conflict in the Dragon Variation often boils down to thestruggle for superior development and to struggle for the d5-square.Black tries at all costs to carry out ...d6-d5 (for example in theGambit Variation of Konstantinopolsky), whereas White strives toput his Knight on d5, by preventing this pawn advance. The DragonVariation resembles some gambit openings in which "time" is themost essential factor.The Dragon Variation (which is appropriately called "the dragon'ssting") is characterised by the fact that the opponents almost alwayscastle on opposite wings. White's King finds shelter on the Q-side,while he tries anise a pawn storm on the K-side by using allhis K-side pawns (g2-g4-g5, h2-h4-h5 to open the h-file and to attackthe King directly. This attack is reinforced in the centre by theeventual pawn-push e4-e5!). Black seeks his counter-chances on theQ-side exploiting the open c-file and the Black-squared Bishop onthe a1-h8 diagonal (this is "the dragon's sting"!).Mter having studied these sharp openings, the beginning chessplayer may proceed to more positional openings requiring moreexperience and a better positional understanding.The authors believe - and chess practice proves - that the essentialingredients of strategy in the opening can be simplified to thefollowing positional ideas or "commands":1) seize the centre with your pawns; 2) develot> your minor piecestowards the centre; 3) ensure the safety of your King (as a rule byivcastling); 4) connect your heavy pieces (rooks); 5) find a convenientsquare for your Queen; 6) link up your mobilisation plan with yourplan for the middle game; 7) ponder about the possible consequencesyour opening strategy may have for the eventual endgame; 8) preventyour opponent from doing all this.These eight laws of opening strategy embrace most variations andsystems, and they are central to the openings analysed in this book.The principle of the pawns seizing the centre can be easily seenin the earliest stage of the game. If White intends to build up anideal centre, he has to reckon with various counter-strikes aimed atthis centre. This principle holds true for all gambit continuations.The principle of speedy development is important in any opening.White is usually ahead of Black who (pensation) tries to buildup solid defensive or even offensive formations, in order anisea counter-attack.The King's safety is the most important factor in all stages of thegame. It is less important in the opening because when the piecesare not pletely developed, this problem is not yet acute. Inthe initial position both Kings are in the centre, where nothingthreatens them. The danger arises only when one side secures anadvantage in the centre or gets superior development.Connecting your heavy pieces is one of the main problems in allopenings. Only when there is no piece left between your Rooks, canwe consider the opening stage of the game pleted.The opponent in turn should do everything to prevent your Rooksfrom being connected.The close link between the opening and the endgame is usuallyillustrated by the Exchange Variation of the Ruy Lopez, in whichWhite gets four mobile pawns against Black's three pawns on the Kside, whereas Black's analogous advantage on the Q-side is of noimportance because his pawns are doubled.We can find many identical examples in different openings. Theprospect of having to play an unfavourable endgame should be takeninto account, for example, in the Rauser Attack of the DragonVariation. At a convenient moment, Black can sacrifice the exchangeon c3, exchange the Queens and secure good chances in the endgameowing to White's doubled and isolated pawns on c2 and c3."Prophylaxis" is the main law of positional struggle. You shouldprevent your opponent from making useful moves and carrying outvactive plans. This is the main thing!However, there is another law in chess. If the opponent violatesone of the opening principles without any sufficient reason, youhave the right to violate some opening principle too so as to refutehis actions.The time has e to state what should be done whentransposing into the middlegame. This problem has seldom beendiscussed in opening monographs (opening books that only deal withone opening). "White is better", "the chances are equal" etc. - thisis all we usually read. But how can this "better" be exploited? Howshould Black defend? What should be understood by "equal chances"?The authors suggests there should be the following indexes: 1)material (dis)advantage 2) position of the Kings, 3) pawn islands, 4)good and bad Bishops, 5) open files and diagonals, 6) peculiaritiesof the position (weak squares, bad pieces etc.), 7) type of advantage(positional or material). Only after taking all these factors ount, can the chess player find the correct plan.Let us consider each of ponents with a view of makingpossible plans:ad 1) Material may be equal or one side has an advantage. If youhave a material advantage, you should play for simplification; if notit is better to strive plications.ad 2) The position of the kings determines your plan: do I attackor defend; if an attack is not realistic, you should pay attention toother targets in the enemy position.ad 3) Pawn islands pact pawn formations onneighbouring files. It mon knowledge that the more pawnislands you are burdened with, the worse is your pawn structure. Insuch situations it is important to decide whether you should strivefor the endgame or try to avoid it for a while.ad 4) It is obvious what to do with good and bad bishops: goodbishops should not be exchanged, whereas bad bishops should bepositioned outside the pawn structure. In the opening and middlegamethe "quality" of bishops is determined mainly by the pawn structurein the centre and in the endgame by the pawn structure as a whole.ad 5) When you open files and diagonals, this normally meansthat you invite heavy pieces and bishops into the position. Thestruggle for files and diagonals frequently assumes a sharp and tensevicharacter.ad 6) The peculiarities of the position prompt us to analysewhere our efforts should be directed: to capture a weak square, totake a bad piece of the opponent or to isolate that same piece.ad 7) All these advantages play an important role. If you havea positional advantage, you should not simplify the game, but rathertry to increase the advantage. If you have a material advantage, youshould exploit it by exchanging material and trying to simplify theposition into a won endgame.Making a good plan is not easy. But real mastery in chess requiresgreat efforts. You should not forget that these efforts are laterrewarded. In the final analysis, the one who makes the best plan,who is more skilled and more knowledgeable, usually wins. Theauthors of this book are encouraging their readers to e moreskilled and to learn more and more about chess.In this work we have used monly accepted chess symbols.strong move!! splendid (often winning) move!? deserves consideration?! doubtful move? erroneous move?? bad move or blunder;t White has a slight advantage=i= Black has a slight advantage± White has the advantage+ Black has the advantage+- - White has a decisive advantage-+ - Black has a decisive advantageoo unclear position00 pensation for the sacrificed materialD., with the ideat with initiative- with attackHowever, besides these symbols, the authors for reason ofmethodology decided to introduce symbols which define the dynamicsof struggle:;t/± - White has a slight advantage which tends to increase;t/= - White has a slight advantage which tends to later equaliseoof± - sharp unclear position where White tends to hold thevii

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Gufeld and Kalinichenko Russian Handbook Of Chess Openings Russian Handbookof Chess OpeningsE. Gufeld N. Kalinichenko" A Concise Encyclopaediafor the Tournament Player"The Alternative Press4/Floor, 169 Wong Nai Chung RoadHappy Valley, Hong KongFax: (852) 881 1853 Tel: 577 6319First printin...全部>> 内容来自淘豆网www.taodocs.com转载请标明出处.
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