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modeling and temperature control of rapid thermal processing.pdf

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modeling and temperature control of rapid thermal processing.pdf
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1 Modeling and Temperature Control of Rapid Thermal Processing Eyal Dassau, Benyamin Grosman and Daniel R. Lewin ? PSE Research Group, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Technion I. I. T., Haifa 32000, Israel Abstract. In the past few years, Rapid Thermal Pr ocesses (RTP) have gained acceptance as mainstream technology for semi-conductors manufacturing. These processes are characterized by a single wafer processing with a very fast ramp heating of the silicon wafer (up to 200 oC/sec). The single wafer approach allows for faster wafer processing and better control of process parameters on th e wafer. As feature sizes e smaller, and wafer uniformity demands e more stringent, there is an increased demand from rapid thermal (RT) equipment manufacturers to improve control, uniformity and repeatability of processes on wafers. In RT pro cesses, the main control problem is that of temperature, which plicated due to the high non-linearity of the heating process (radiation), process parameters that change significantly during a single wafer process and between processes, and difficulties in measuring temperature and edge effects. In work carried out in cooperation with Steag CVD Systems, we developed algorithms for steady state and dynamic temperature uniformity. These algorithms are designed to ensure uniform temperature in RTP equipm ent. The steady-state algorithm involves the reverse engineering of the required power distribution, given a history of past distributions and the resulting temperature profile. The algorithm for dynamic temperature uniformity involves the developmen t of a first-principles model of the RTP chamber and wafer, its calibra tion using experimental data, and the use of the model to develop a controller. Keywords: Rapid thermal processing (RTP); Non-linear Model Predictive Control (NMPC); ic Algorithm (GA); ic Programming (GP). Submitted to Computers and Chemical Engineering, July 2005. ? Author to whom all corresponden ce should be addressed. Email: dlewin@tx.technion.ac.il . http://pse.technion.ac.il 2 1. INTRODUCTION Integrated circuits are at the heart of all el ectrical appliances. These are based mainly on semiconductor devices, which are fabricated in a sequence of batch chemical processes such as chemical vapor diffusion (CVD), oxidation, nitration, ion implantation, and annealing. Incremental improvements in integrated ci rcuit technology, together with increased performance demands from semiconductor device s, have gradually led to requirements that the variation in the key quality variables be re duced and to the increased yields afforded by larger diameter silicon wafers. This in turn ha s increased the reliance of the microelectronics industry on advanced process cont rol (APC) strategies , and to seek new fabrication methods. Thermal processes play an important role in the fabrication of semiconductor ch 内容来自淘豆网www.taodocs.com转载请标明出处.
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