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The Oxford Thesaurus An A-Z Dictionary of Synonyms.pdf


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The Oxford Thesaurus An A-Z Dictionary of Synonyms.pdf
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TheOxfordThesaurusAnA-ZDictionaryofSynonymsINTROIntroduction=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-Initsnarrowestsense,asynonymisawordorphrasethatisperfectlysubstitutableinacontextforanotherwordorphrase.Peoplewhostudylanguageprofessionallyagreethatthereisnosuchthingasanidealsynonym,foritisvirtuallyimpossibletofindtwowordsorphrasesthatareidenticalindenotation(meaning),connotation,frequency,familiarity,andappropriateness.Indeed,linguistshavelongnotedtheeconomyoflanguage,whichsuggeststhatnolanguagepermitsaperfectfit,inallrespects,betweenanytwowordsorphrases.Manyexamplesofoverlappingcanbecited;themoreobviousonesinEnglisharethosethatreflectaduplicationarisingfromGermanicandRomancesources,likemotherlyandmaternal,farmingandagriculture,teachandinstruct.InsuchpairsthenativeEnglishformisoftentheonewithanearthier,warmerconnotation.Insomeinstances,whereanewcoinageoraloanwordhasbeenadoptedinadvertentlyduplicatinganexistingterm,creating'true'synonyms,thetwowillquicklydiverge,notnecessarilyinmeaningbutinusage,application,connotation,level,orallofthese.Forexample,scientistssomeyearsagoexpresseddissatisfactionwiththetermtidalwave,forthephenomenonwasnotcausedbytidesbut,usually,bysubmarineseismicactivity.urately,butitwaslaterpointedoutthetsunamimeans'tidalwave'inJapanese.Today,thetermsexistsidebysideinEnglish,monuse,thenewermorefrequentinthescientificandtechnicalliterature.uancesofthelanguage.Initsbestapplications,itservestoremindusersofwords,similarinmeaning,thatmightnotspringreadilytomind,promisesforthosethatmightotherwisebeoverusedandthereforeredundant,repetitious,andboring.TheOxfordThesaurusgoesastepfurtherbyofferingexamplesentencestoillustratetheusesoftheheadwordsandtheiralternativesinnatural,ontexts.1.SelectionofheadwordsTwocriteriahavebeenemployed:first,headwordshavebeenselectedbecauseoftheirfrequencyinthelanguage,ontheassumptionthatsynonymsaremorelikelytobesoughtforthewordsthataremostused;second,someheadwordsoflowerfrequencyhavebeenincludedbecauseitwouldotherwisebeimpossibletofindasuitableplacetogrouptogetherwhatareperceivedasusefulsetsofsynonymswiththeirattendantillustrativesentences.ObviouslistingshavebeenomittedonthegroundsthatusersoftheThesauruscaneasilyfindsynonymsfor,say,abdicationbymakingnounsoftheverbslistedunderabdicate.monwords.Fortheconvenienceoftheuser,bothshyandbashfularemainentries,asaremethod,manner,andmode,which,thoughmuchthesameinsomerespects,differindetailandapplication.Inthisbook,however,mitigateisamainentrybutnotmitigation,mistakeandmistakenaremainentriesbutnotmistakenly,etc.orsemanticallyobvious,separatelistingshavebeenprovided.2.panyitkeeps,oneormoresentencesshowingthemainentrywordincontextareprovidedforeachsensediscrimination.ThesehavebeencarefullyselectedtodemonstratetheuseofthemainentryinacontextlikelytobeencounteredinfamiliarwrittenorspokenordinaryEnglish.(Seealso7,below.)3.SynonymlistsEachmainentryisfollowedbyoneormoresensegro 内容来自淘豆网www.taodocs.com转载请标明出处.
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