商务英语教学chapter 4 styletone continued.ppt
Chapter 4 Style and Tone--continued
Nine Ways to Make Your Writing Easier to Read
Revise your draft in the following ways to make your writing easier to read. When you revise, remember that very little specific advice about style applies to all situations. Keep using a technique only if it improves your writing.
1. Tighten your writing.
2. Vary sentence length and sentence structure.
3. Use technical jargon sparingly; eliminate business jargon.
4.Use active verbs most of the time.
5. Use verbs—not nouns—to carry the weight of your sentence.
6. Use parallel structure（平行结构）pp30-31
7.Begin most paragraphs with topic sentences.
8. Use specific, vivid language.
9.Put your readers in your sentences.
Tighten Your Writing
Writing is wordy if the same idea could be expressed in fewer words. Unnecessary words increase typing time; they bore your reader; and they make your meaning more difficult to follow.
Good writing is tight. Tight writing may be long because it is packed with ideas. In the above chapters, we saw that revisions to create you-
You-attitude and positive emphasis
And to develop reader benefits were frequently longer than the originals because the revision added information not in the original.
You may be able to look at a draft and see immediately how to tighten it. When wordiness isn’t obvious, try the following strategies for tightening your writing.
A. Eliminate words that are clear from the context or that tell the reader nothing.
B. Use gerunds and infinitives to make
Sentences shorter and smoother.
C. Combine sentences to eliminate unnecessary words.
D. Reword sentences to cut the number of words.
The purpose of eliminating unnecessary words is to save the reader’s time, not simply to see how few words you can use.
You are not writing a telegram
So keep the little words which make sentences complete.
A. Eliminate words that are clear from the context or that tell the re