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The research of digital image processing technique
Interest in digital image processing methods stems from two principal application areas: improvement of pictorial information for human interpretation; and processing of image data for storage, transmission, and representation for autonomous machine perception. This chapter has several objectives: (1)to define the scope ofthe field that we call image processing; (2)to give a historical perspective of the origins of this field; (3)to give an idea of the state of the art in image processing by examining some of the principal area in which it is applied; (4)to discuss briefly the principal approaches used in digital image processing; (5)to give an overview of ponents contained in a typic叭general-purpose image processing system; and (6) to provide direction to the books and other literature where image processing work normally is reporter.
What Is Digital Image Processing?
An image may be defined as a two-dimensional function,f(x,y),where x and y are
spatial (plane) coordinates, and the amplitude of fat any pair of coordinates (x,y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at that point. When x, y, and digital image. Tire field of digital image processing refers to processing digital images by means of a puter. Note that a digital image posed of a finite number of elements, each of which has a particular location and value. These elements are referred to as picture elements, image elements, pels, and pixels. Pixel is the term most widely used to denote the elements of a digital image.
Vision is the most advanced of our senses, so it is not surprising that images play the single most important role in human perception. However, unlike human who are limited to the visual band of the ic (E11)spectrum, imaging machines
cover almost the entire EM spectrum, ranging from gamma to radio waves. They can operate on images generated by sources that human are not accustomed to associating with image. these include ultrasound, electron microscopy, puter-generated images. Thus, digital image processing passes a wide and varied field of application.
There is no general agreement among authors regarding where image processing stops and other related areas, such as image analysis puter vision, start ,sometimes a distinction is made by defining image processing as a discipline in which both the input and output of a process are images. We believe this to be a limiting and somewhat artificial boundary. For example, under this definition, even the trivial task puting tire average intensity of an image (which yields a single number) would not be considered an image processing operation. On the other hand, there are fields such puter vision whose ultimate goal is to puter toemulate human vision, including learning and being able to make inferences and take actions based on visual inputs. This area itself is a b