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英汉句法对比讲课资料.ppt


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英汉句法对比讲课资料.ppt
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Chapter2ContrastiveStudiesofEnglishandChineseLecturer:温彬Tel:**********E-mail:******@1、Synthetic&Analytic1)Asyntheticlanguageischaracterizedbyfrequentandsystematicuseofinflectedformstoexpressgrammaticalrelationships.2)Ananalyticlanguageischaracterizedbyfrequentuseoffunctionwords,auxiliaryverbs,andchangesinwordordertoexpresssyntheticrelations.English:synthetic-analyticlanguage(oldEnglishwassynthetic+modernEnglishisanalytic)Chinese:atypicalanalyticlanguage1.1Inflectional&Non-inflectionalInflection:Ingrammar,aninflectionisachangeintheformofawordthatshowsitsgrammaticalfunction.Notice:nouns,pronouns,verbsareinflected;theendings–er,-estarenon-inflectionalsuffixes.1、Synthetic&AnalyticTheuseofinflectedformscouldexpress:Partsofspeech(词性)Gender(性)Number(数)Case(主格/宾格)Person(人称)Tense(时态)Aspect(体)Voice(语态)Mood(情态)Non-finiteverbs(非限定动词)1、Synthetic&Analytic1、Synthetic&Analytic表示语义引申and,notonly...butalso,aswellas,neither...nor表示选择or,either...or表示转折或对比but,yet,however,nevertheless表示因果关系for,so,therefore,henceCoordinator(并列连接词)Subordinator(从属连接词)引导时间状语从句when,while,as,after,before,since,untill,assoonas,once引导原因状语从句because,as,since,nowthat,considering(that)引导条件状语从句if,evenif,unless,incase,provided/providing(that),suppose/supposing(that),as(so)longas,oncondition(that)引导让步状语从句although/though,evenif引导比较状语从句than,as(so)...as引导目的状语从句lest,sothat,inorderthat引导结果状语从句so...that,such...that1、Synthetic&hinesefunctionwords:Particle(助词)aspectparticle(动态助词):着,了,过structuralparticle(结构助词):的、地、得emotionalparticle(语气助词):吗,呢,吧Connective(连接词)Englishsentencescanbereducedtofivebasicpatterns.Englishsubject-predicatestructureappearsrigid.Chinesesubject-predicatestructureisusuallyvaried,flexible,andsupple.2、Rigid&SuppleHypotaxis(形合法):P47Parataxis(意合法):P473、Hypotactic&ParatacticEnglishresortstoovertcohesion(显性接应)relativesRelativeorconjunctivepronounsandadverbs(who,whom,whose,that,which,what,when,where,why,how)connectivesCoordinateorsubordinateconjunctions(and,or,but,yet,so,however,aswellas,when,while,as,since,until)Pr 内容来自淘豆网www.taodocs.com转载请标明出处.